CPU - 32bit RISC



I designed a experimental 32-bit RISC CPU and implemented on a Xilinx FPGA chip. An ASM program that prints prime numbers below 100 demonstrates its functionality.

Instruction Set

The 32-bit instruction set covers common DLX instructions. It is divided into three types, R-type, I-type and J-type. R-type are register instructions with three register references. I-type instructions contain two registers and a 16-bits immediate value. J-type instructions containing a 26-bit address are jumps. These instructions are coded as follows,

R-type : op(6) rs1(5) rs2(5) rd(5) func(11)
I-type : op(6) rs1(5) rd(5)
J-type : op(6)

Since the memory on the experimental device (FD-MCES) is 32Kbytes, we can use 'BEQZ R0 label' instead of 'J label'. So there is no J-type instructions in this implementation. (Register R0 remains 0.)

Instruction classificaiton & operation-code (op):

NOP 000000
LOAD 010xxx
STORE 011xxx
ALU(R-type) 100xxx
ALU(I-type) 11xxxx
Affecting Program Flow 101xxx

The detailed instruction description:INS.DEF .

Clock Signal

  • Main Clock
    CLK: External Clock Signal
    MCLK: , to access onboard devices including RAM, printer, keyboard.
    CLK_main: CPU working clock (out),
    Since the onboard-RAM supports only 16-bit access, we simulate a 32-bit RAM via twice the accessing in one singal CLK_main.

  • Pipeline sub-Clocks
    For the no-stall case, the pipeline subClock Signals, CLK_IF, CLK_ID, CLK_EX, CLK_MEM, CLK_WB, follows the main clock CLK_main.
    For the stall case, a bubble (NOP instruction) is sent to the next stage of pipeline and all previous stages stall for a time-step.
    The following shows an example, where the ID requires a freeze. Thus, its previous CLK_IF stops trigger in the current cycle,


The CPU Structure

  1. Instruction Fetch (IF)
    Set PC to FFFF when Reset = 0. Let PC+1 at each cycle, (or modify PC according to NPC_IDEX for jump).

  3. Decode (ID)
    'Jump' is decoded in the ID stage in order to prevent possible stalling sometimes.

  5. Execute (EX)
    ALU operates according to the instruction in IR_IDEX.

  7. Access (MEM)
    The 'MEM/IO Ctrl' on the experimental board is the interface accessing memory and io devices. MCLK, twice the frequency of CLK_main is its clock signal. In order to simulate a 32-bit memory using the 16-bit memory on the experimental board, there are two accesses in one singal CLK_main.

  9. Writeback
    Instructions write their results into the registers by selecting data from LMD_MEMWB or ALUOUT_MEMWB.



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Page last updated: January 3, 2008 7:27 PM